In a previous article, Cyber expert Ravi Das defined Deepfakes, the algorithms behind them, and the damage they can inflict on their victims. Here the author describes how state and federal legislation–and consumer awareness—can protect citizens against this insidious form of fraud.

Legislation Banning Deepfakes

Given how severe the impacts of a Deepfake can be to its victims, a Federal Bill was recently introduced in Congress that, if passed, would allow the impacted parties to sue the culprits involved. This bill is known as the “Disrupt Explicit Forged Images and Non-Consensual Edits,” or “DEFIANCE” for short. One of the prime catalysts for this bill was the pornographic images of Talyor Swift that were created using Deepfakes. It went viral on “X” (formerly Twitter). If this bill is signed into law, it will be the first piece of Federal Legislation of its kind.

Several states have also passed similar laws, giving the victim the right to sue. These states include:

  • California
  • Florida
  • Georgia
  • Hawaii
  • Illinois
  • Minnesota
  • New York
  • South Dakota
  • Texas
  • Virginia

The full text of the DEFIANCE bill can be found here.

How To Spot a Deepfake

Just like in a Phishing based email, there are telltale signs of a Deepfake, but you must take a very close look to notice them. Here are some clues to look for:

  • The lighting in a facial image does not match the surrounding lighting.
  • Look for any type or kind of blurring, or color/textural/resolution differences between the face and the body.
  • Any irregularities in the lip and facial movements.
  • Look for a “photoshopped” image of a face or body.
  • Look for skin tonalities that look extremely polished, which is also known as a “smoothing effect” or “electronic sheen.”
  • Check for any type or kind of inconsistencies between the lighting and shadows.
  • Look at the edges of the face – does it match the rest of the facial features? Are they sharp or too blurry?
  • Do the lip movements match the corresponding audio?
  • Do the teeth either look “ultra polished” or blurry?

See if you can spot any signs of a Deepfake in this photo:

(Source 1)

Conclusions

The question most often asked about AI (including Deepfake technology) is: “Will AI replace the human worker?” The answer to this question is a resounding “No.” To truly replicate an actual human being, we would need to fully understand the human brain, and given how complex the brain is, this will never happen. At best, AI will be used mostly for augmentation or automation in certain tasks. But it will never fully replace a human worker—or the human brain.

Sources/References:

Source 1:  https://www.shutterstock.com/image-photo/example-ai-face-swap-deepfake-technology-2323812543

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Ravi Das is a Cybersecurity Consultant and Business Development Specialist. He also does Cybersecurity Consulting through his private practice, RaviDas Tech, Inc. He also possesses the Certified in Cybersecurity (CC) cert from the ISC2.

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